Minggu, 24 Maret 2013

Disorders of the Stomach

Disorders of the Stomach

Disorders of the stomach are common. There can be a lot of different causes with a variety of symptoms. The strength of the inner lining of the stomach needs a careful balance of acid and mucus. If there is not enough mucus in the stomach, ulcers, abdominal pain, indigestion, heartburn, nausea and vomiting could all be caused by the extra acid.

Erosions, ulcers, and tumors can cause bleeding. When blood is in the stomach it starts the digestive process and turns black. When this happens, the person can have black stool or vomit. Some ulcers can bleed very slowly so the person won't recognize the loss of blood. Over time, the iron in your body will run out, which in turn, will cause anemia.

There isn't a known diet to prevent against getting ulcers. A balanced, healthy diet is always recommended. Smoking can also be a cause of problems in the stomach. Tobacco increases acid production and damages the lining .

  1. Digestion is a chemical process.  This process is facilitated by special chemicals called digestive enzymes. The end products of digestion are absorbed through the wall of the gut into the blood vessels. These end products are then distributed to body parts that need them for growth, repair, or energy.
  2. There are associated glands--the liver and the pancreas--which produce  additional enzymes to further the process.
  3. Most digestion and absorption takes place in the small intestin.

a.  The small intestines are classically divided into three areas-- the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. The duodenum is C-shaped, about 10 inches long in the adult. The duodenum is looped around the pancreas. DUODENUM = 12 fingers (length equal to width of 12 fingers) The jejunum is approximately eight feet long and connects the duodenum and ileum. The ileum is about 12 feet long. The jejunum and ileum are attached to the rear wall of the abdomen with a membrane called a mesentery. This membrane allows mobility and serves as a passageway for nerves and vessels (NAVL) to the small intestines. JEJUNUM = empty ILEUM = lying next to the ilium (bone of the pelvic girdle; PELVIS = basin)
b.   The small intestine is tubular. It has muscular walls which produce a
       wave-like motion called peristalsis moving the contents along.                              The small intestine is just the right length to allow the processes of digestion and absorption to take place completely.
c.   The inner surface of the small intestine is NOT smooth like the inside of  new plumbing pipes. Rather, the inner surface has folds (plicae). On the surface of these plicae are finger-like projections called villi (villus, singular). This folding and the presence of villi increase the surface area available for absorption.


Sumber : Bpk. Dr. Iskandar Zulkarnain

#posting tugas cyberprenership
    ahmad baihaqi
    NIM 1112503964


Tidak ada komentar:

Posting Komentar