Senin, 25 Maret 2013

Parathyroid Gland

Parathyroid gland
    There are four parathyroid glands. They are small, light-colored lumps that stick out from the surface of the thyroid gland. All four glands are located on the thyroid gland.
They are butterfly-shaped and located inside the neck, more specifically on both sides of the windpipe.

   One of the parathyroid glands most important functions is to regulate the body's calcium and phosphorus levels. Another function of the parathyroid glands is to secrete parathyroid hormone, which causes the release of the calcium present in bone to extracellular fluid.
PTH does this by depressing the production of osteoblasts, special cells of the body involved in the production of bone and activating osteoclasts, other specialized cells involved in the removal of bone.

Receptors bind a specific hormone and the result is a specific physiologic response, meaning a normal response of the body.

    PTH finds its major target cells in bone, kidneys, and the gastrointestinal system.
Calcitonin, a hormone produced by the thyroid gland that also regulates ECF calcium levels and serves to counteract the calcium-producing effects of PTH.

    The adult body contains as much as 1 kg of calcium. Most of this calcium is found in bone and teeth. The four parathyroid glands secrete the parathyroid hormone (PTH). It opposes the effect of thyrocalcitonin. It does this by removing calcium from its storage sites in bones, releasing it into the bloodstream. It also signals the kidneys to reabsorb more of this mineral, transporting it into the blood. It also signals the small intestine to absorb more of this mineral, transporting it from the diet into the blood.

    Calcium is important for steps of body metabolism. Blood cannot clot without sufficient calcium. Skeletal muscles require this mineral in order to contract. A deficiency of PTH can lead to tetany, muscle weakness due to lack of available calcium in the blood.

Sumber : Bpk. Dr. Iskandar Zulkarnain

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