Rabu, 20 Maret 2013

Other Influences

Other Influences
    Numerous other influences can affect the health of the immune system as well. In societies where smoking is acceptable, for example, people are more at risk for lung cancer and respiratory ailments, both of which can lead to various secondary infections, including bronchitis. Second-hand smoke, or passive smoking, increases respiratory infections for both infants and children.

    Children who are exposed to second-hand smoke may be predisposed to pneumonia, allergies , and asthma as well as repeated irritations of the eyes, nose, and mouth. Nutrition, too, has an impact on the immune system. Malnutrition, with diets deficient in a variety of nutrients, such as certain vitamins, minerals, or protein, can cause increased vulnerability to infection. 

Immune Deficiencies
Immune deficiencies are conditions that impair the body's immune system so that it is less capable of fighting infection. Immune deficiencies arise when one or more of the parts of the immune system are missing or not working correctly, leaving the body less able to fight disease-causing agents. 

There are two types of these deficiencies: 

primary, or inherited, immune deficiencies and secondary, or acquired, immune deficiencies. The immune system has many parts that work together to protect the body from foreign invaders, such as microorganisms and toxins . When any segment of the immune system is absent or breaks down, it can lead to an immune deficiency. With so many elements of the immune system, there are more than 80 different types of primary immune deficiencies. They range from those that have severe and sometimes fatal effects to mild diseases that cause people few, if any, problems.

  Secondary immune deficiencies are much more common than inherited deficiencies. Unlike patients with primary immune deficiencies, people with secondary immune deficiencies are born with a healthy immune system, but sometime later in life the system becomes weakened or damaged.

  Both primary and secondary deficiencies typically lead to frequent infections and sometimes to additional medical problems, including certain cancers. These people often experience a variety of skin, respiratory, and bone problems as well, and they are more likely to have autoimmune diseases.

Immune Response In Vivo


Serum Antibody titer
days after antigen exposure

Sumber : Bpk. Dr. Iskandar Zulkarnain

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