Minggu, 24 Maret 2013


Once food is swallowed, it enters the esophagus, a muscular tube that is about 10 inches long. The esophagus is located between the throat and the stomach. Muscular wavelike contractions known as peristalsis push the food down through the esophagus to the stomach. A muscular ring (called the cardiac sphincter) at the end of the esophagus allows food to enter the stomach, and, then, it squeezes shut to prevent food and fluid from going back up the esophagus.


The stomach is a sac-like enlargement of the digestive tract specialized for the storage of food. Since food is stored, a person does not have to eat continuously all day. One is freed to do other things. The presence of valves at each end prevents the stored food from leaving the stomach before it is ready. The pyloric valve prevents the food from going further. The inner lining of the stomach is in folds to allow expansion.

a. While the food is in the stomach, the digestive processes are initiated by juices from the wall of the stomach. The musculature of the walls thoroughly mixes the food and juices while the food is being held in the stomach. In fact, the stomach has an extra layer of muscle fibers for this purpose.
b. When the pyloric valve of the stomach opens, a portion of the stomach contents moves into the small intestine.


   The stomach is a thick walled organ that lies between the esophagus and the first part of the small intestine (the duodenum). It is on the left side of the abdominal cavity, the fundus of the stomach lying against the diaphragm. Lying beneath the stomach is the pancreas. The greater omentum hangs from the greater curvature.

   A mucous membrane lines the stomach which contains glands (with chief cells) that secrete gastric juices, up to three quarts of this digestive fluid is produced daily. The gastric glands begin secreting before food enters the stomach due to the parasympathetic impulses of the vagus nerve, making the stomach also a storage vat for that acid.

The secretion of gastric juices occurs in three phases: 
     cephalic, gastric, and intestinal. The cephalic phase is activated by the smell and taste of food and swallowing. The gastric phase is activated by the chemical effects of food and the distension of the stomach. The intestinal phase blocks the effect of the cephalic and gastric phases. Gastric juice also contains an enzyme named pepsin, which digests proteins, hydrochloric acid and mucus. Hydrochloric acid causes the stomach to maintain a pH of about 2, which helps kill off bacteria that comes into the digestive system via food.

The gastric juice is highly acidic with a pH. It may cause or compound damage to the stomach wall or its layer of mucus, causing a peptic ulcer. On the inside of the stomach there are folds of skin call the gastric rugae. Gastric rugae make the stomach very extendable, especially after a very big meal.

Sumber : Bpk. Dr. Iskandar Zulkarnain

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