Selasa, 26 Maret 2013

The pancreas contains exocrine and endocrine cells

The pancreas contains exocrine and endocrine cells.

Groups of endocrine cells, the islets of Langerhans, secrete two hormones. The beta cells secrete insulin; the alpha cells secrete glucagon. The level of sugar in the blood depends on the opposing action of these two hormones.

Insulin decreases the concentration of glucose in the blood. Most of the glucose enters the cells of the liver and skeletal muscles. In these cells, this monosaccharide is converted to the polysaccharide glycogen. Therefore, insulin promotes glycogenesis or glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen. Excess glucose is also stored as fat in adipose tissue cells in response to insulin.

Insulin deficiency leads to the development of diabetes mellitus, specifically type I, juvenile diabetes. As the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin, it is treated by insulin injections. In type II or maturity onset diabetes, the pancreas does produce enough insulin, but the target cells do not respond to it.

Sumber : Bpk. Dr. Iskandar Zulkarnain

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